Pathology of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and its clinical implications

Rosanna L. Lapham, Jae Y. Ro, Gregg A. Staerkel, Alberto G. Ayala

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Transitional cell carcinomas are divided into superficial and muscle- invasive tumors. Most of them are superficial tumors; and approximately 15- 20% are muscle-invasive carcinomas. Pathologists play a significant role in diagnosing bladder tumors and in reporting features important for determining prognosis. We will review the cytologic and histopathologic features that help determine prognosis, including depth of invasion, tumor grade, multicentricity, tumor size, and the presence of vascular/lymphatic invasion, blood group antigen expression, proliferative indices, and molecular markers. Brief mention will be made of specimen handling, interpretation, reporting, and histologic variants of transitional cell carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307-318
Number of pages12
JournalSeminars in Surgical Oncology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1997


  • Antigens
  • Biological tumor markers
  • Biopsy
  • Bladder neoplasms
  • Blood groups
  • Cystectomy
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Neoplasm invasiveness
  • Neoplasm staging
  • Prognosis
  • Survival rate
  • Transitional cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oncology


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