Partial androgen insensitivity with sex phenotype variation in two unrelated families was associated with missense mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene that disrupted the AR NH 2-terminal/carboxy terminal interaction. Each mutation caused a single amino acid change within the region of the ligand-binding domain that forms activation function 2 (AF2). In one family, the mutation I737T was in alpha helix 4 and in the other F725L was between helices 3 and 4. Neither mutation altered androgen binding as determined by assays of mutant AR in the patient's cultured genital skin fibroblasts or of recombinant mutant receptors transfected into COS cells. In transient cotransfection assays in CV1 cells, transactivation with the AR mutants at low concentrations of DHT was reduced several fold compared with wild-type AR but increased at higher concentrations. Defects in NH 2-terminal/carboxy terminal interactions were identified in mammalian two hybrid assays. In similar assays, there was reduced binding of the p160 coactivators TIF2/SRC2 and SRC1 to the mutant AR ligand binding domains (LBD). In the family with AR I737T, sex phenotype varied from severely defective masculinization in the proband to a maternal great uncle whose only manifestation of AIS was severe gynecomastia. He was fertile and passed the mutation to two daughters. The proband of the F725L family was also incompletely masculinized but was raised as a male while his half-sibling by a different father was affected more severely and reared as a female. These studies indicate that the function of an AR AF2 mutant in male development can vary greatly depending on the genetic background.
- Androgen insensitivity syndrome
- Androgen receptor
- Androgen receptor gene mutation
- Male sexual development
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Biology