Objective: To clinically characterize affected individuals in families with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), examine the association with infantile convulsions, and confirm linkage to a pericentromeric chromosome 16 locus. Background: PKD is characterized by frequent, recurrent attacks of involuntary movement or posturing in response to sudden movement, stress, or excitement. Recently, an autosomal dominant PKD locus on chromosome 16 was identified. Methods: The authors studied 11 previously unreported families of diverse ethnic background with PKD with or without infantile convulsions and performed linkage analysis with markers spanning the chromosome 16 locus. Detailed clinical questionnaires and interviews were conducted with affected and unaffected family members. Results: Clinical characterization and sampling of 95 individuals in 11 families revealed 44 individuals with paroxysmal dyskinesia, infantile convulsions, or both. Infantile convulsions were surprisingly common, occurring in 9 of 11 families. In only two individuals did generalized seizures occur in later childhood or adulthood. The authors defined a 26-cM region using linkage data in 11 families (maximum lod score 6.63 at (θ = 0). Affected individuals in one family showed no evidence for a shared haplotype in this region, implying locus heterogeneity. Conclusions: Identification and characterization of the PKD/infantile convulsions gene will provide new insight into the pathophysiology of this disorder, which spans the phenotypic spectrum between epilepsy and movement disorder.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology