Parkinson's disease and skin

Nicki Niemann, Andrew Billnitzer, Joseph Jankovic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Parkinson's disease is associated with a variety of dermatologic disorders and the study of skin may provide insights into pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this common neurodegenerative disorder. Skin disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease can be divided into two major groups: 1) non-iatrogenic disorders, including melanoma, seborrheic dermatitis, sweating disorders, bullous pemphigoid, and rosacea, and 2) iatrogenic disorders related either to systemic side effects of antiparkinsonian medications or to the delivery system of antiparkinsonian therapy, including primarily carbidopa/levodopa, rotigotine and other dopamine agonists, amantadine, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, subcutaneous apomorphine, levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel, and deep brain stimulation. Recent advances in our understanding of the role of α-synuclein in peripheral tissues, including the skin, and research based on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from skin fibroblasts have made skin an important target for the study of Parkinson's disease pathogenesis, drug discovery, novel stem cell therapies, and diagnostics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)61-76
Number of pages16
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Apomorphine
  • Biopsy
  • Bullous pemphigoid
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Diagnosis
  • Levodopa
  • Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel
  • Livedo reticularis
  • Melanoma
  • Nodules
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Rosacea
  • Seborrheic dermatitis
  • Skin
  • Sweating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Clinical Neurology


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