Parallel grafts and physician modified endografts for endovascular repair of the aortic arch

Marvin D. Atkins, Alan B. Lumsden

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Aortic arch aneurysms are a challenging clinical problem especially in high-risk patients. Open aortic arch replacement, even in the best of centers, carries significant risk of stroke or death in this high-risk population. Many high-risk patients are deemed inoperable and not offered repair. Branched and fenestrated thoracic endografts are currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States but are not yet commercially available. Many elderly and frail patients have significant brachiocephalic occlusive disease or anatomy excluding them for consideration for such clinical trials. These patients also present with acute aortic syndromes requiring urgent or emergent repair and are unable to participate in clinical trials due to the time required to have such devices available. Alternative endovascular therapies, including parallel stent grafts (including Chimneys, Snorkels and Periscopes) and physician modified thoracic endografts, have been used to treat such high-risk patients combined with commercially available thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) devices. This paper aims to review the techniques and current reported outcomes from parallel stent grafts and physician modified devices used to treat high risk patients undergoing repair for aortic arch pathologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16-25
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Chimney
  • In-situ fenestration
  • Parallel grafts
  • Periscope
  • Physician modified endoluminal graft
  • Snorkel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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