Overall survival and secondary malignant neoplasms in children receiving passively scattered proton or photon craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma

Arnold C. Paulino, Ethan B. Ludmir, David R. Grosshans, Jack M. Su, Susan L. McGovern, M. Fatih Okcu, Mary Frances McAleer, Patricia A. Baxter, Anita Mahajan, Murali M. Chintagumpala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Both intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT) and passively scattered proton therapy have a risk of secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN) in children. To determine the influence of RT modality on the incidence of SMN after craniospinal irradiation (CSI), the authors compared the incidence of SMN in children who had medulloblastoma treated with either photon CSI plus an intensity-modulated RT boost (group I) or passively scattered proton CSI plus a boost (group II). METHODS: From 1996 to 2014, 115 children with medulloblastoma (group I, n = 63; group II, n = 52) received CSI followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Most patients had standard-risk disease (63.5%). The median follow-up was 12.8 years for group I and 8.7 years for group II. RESULTS: The 5-year and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 88.8% and 85.1%, respectively, for standard-risk patients and 63.1% and 57.3%, respectively, for high-risk patients, with no OS difference by RT modality (P =.81). Six SMNs were identified (4 in group I, 2 in group II). The 5-year and 10-year SMN incidence rates were 1.0% and 6.9%, respectively (0.0% and 8.0%, respectively, in group I; 2.2% and 4.9%, respectively, in group II; P =.74). Two SMNs occurred in the clinical target volume in the brain, 2 occurred in the exit dose region from the photon spinal field, 1 occurred in the entrance path of a proton beam, and 1 occurred outside the radiation field. There were no reported cases of secondary leukemia. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrates no difference in OS or SMN incidence between patients in groups I and II 10 years after RT. LAY SUMMARY: One hundred fifteen children with medulloblastoma received radiotherapy (RT) with either photon craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and an intensity-modulated RT boost (group I; n = 63) or passively scattered proton CSI and a boost (group II;, n = 52). The majority of children had standard-risk disease (63.5%). The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 88.8% and 85.1% for standard-risk patients, respectively, and 63.1% and 57.3% for high-risk patients, respectively, with no difference in overall survival by RT group (P =.81). The 5-year and 10-year second malignant neoplasm incidence rates were 1.0% and 6.9%, respectively, with no difference in second malignant neoplasm incidence according to RT group (P =.74).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3865-3871
Number of pages7
JournalCancer
Volume127
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2021

Keywords

  • intensity-modulated radiation therapy
  • medulloblastoma
  • proton
  • radiotherapy
  • secondary malignant neoplasm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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