Background: The REPLACE-2 trial demonstrated that bivalirudin with provisional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) inhibition is not inferior to heparin plus GPIIb/IIIa inhibition in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The extent to which this applies to patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is unclear. Therefore, we sought to determine if bivalirudin has similar efficacy in ACS patients as compared with "stable" patients in the REPLACE-2 trial. Methods: We analyzed the outcomes of ACS patients compared with stable patients and the outcomes of ACS patients according to whether or not they had received bivalirudin, including the economic costs. The trial enrolled 1351 ACS patients (myocardial infarction within 7 days or unstable angina within 48 hours, but not on ongoing GPIIb/IIIa or heparin therapy) and 4554 stable patients. Results: Patients with ACS had a similar rate of death or myocardial infarction at 30 days compared to stable patients (7.2% vs 6.7%, P = .51) and death at 1 year (1.6% vs 2.2%, P = .169), but a higher rate of urgent coronary artery bypass graft at 30 days (1.0% vs 0.3%, P = .002). Patients with ACS treated with bivalirudin had a similar rate of 30-day death, myocardial infarction, or urgent revascularization compared with ACS patients treated with heparin and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors (8.7% vs 8.0%, P = .616) and death at 1 year (1.5% vs 1.8%, P = .701), but a higher rate of revascularization at 6 months (12% vs 8.4%, P = .04). Patients with ACS treated with bivalirudin had less major bleeding than ACS patients treated with heparin and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, although this was not statistically significant (2.7% vs 4.5%, P = .07). Mean 30-day costs for patients with ACS were $12 415 for those treated with bivalirudin and $12 806 for those treated with heparin plus GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors (P = .022). Conclusion: Bivalirudin with provisional GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor use in low-risk ACS patients (not receiving preprocedural GPIIb/IIIa blockade) appears to provide similar protection against death and myocardial infarction as the combination of heparin and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, although we observed a higher rate of revascularization at 6 months.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine