Outcomes for pediatric patients with central nervous system germ cell tumors treated with proton therapy

Brad J. Greenfield, Sergio Jaramillo, Mirna Abboud, Anita Mahajan, Arnold C. Paulino, Susan McGovern, Mary F. McAleer, Murali Chintagumpala, M. Fatih Okcu, Soumen Khatua, Jack Su, David R. Grosshans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Purpose: We assessed outcomes after proton therapy (PT) for central nervous system germinomas or non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) in children. Patients and methods: We identified children with germ cell tumors of the central nervous system who received proton therapy in 2006–2009 and extracted information on tumor response, treatment failures, and toxicity. Results: Of the 20 identified patients (median age 12 years [range 3–16]), 9 had germinoma and 11 NGGCTs; 19 patients received three-dimensional conformal PT and 1 scanning-beam PT. Fourteen patients had craniospinal irradiation (CSI), 4 had ventricular irradiation that excluded the 4th ventricle, and 2 had whole-ventricle irradiation. All received involved-field boosts. At a median follow-up interval of 5.6 years (range, 0.3–8.2 years), 1 patient with germinoma had an out-of-field failure in the 4th ventricle and 2 with NGGCT died from disease progression after CSI. Rates of local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival at 5 years were 89%, 89%, and 100% for patients with germinoma; corresponding rates for NGGCTs were 82%, 82%, and 82%. The most common late toxicity (9 patients [45%]) was endocrinopathy. Conclusions: PT for CNS germ cell tumors is associated with acceptable disease control rates and toxicity profiles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-14
Number of pages6
JournalClinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
StatePublished - Dec 2016


  • Germ cell tumor
  • Germinoma
  • Non-germinomatous germ cell tumor
  • Pediatric brain tumor
  • Proton therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Outcomes for pediatric patients with central nervous system germ cell tumors treated with proton therapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this