Relapse of hematological malignancies after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is associated with poor prognosis. A second HCT represents one of the few therapeutic options for these high-risk patients. For children undergoing second HCT, the outcome data are particularly limited. We, therefore, conducted a retrospective single-institution study and report the outcomes and prognostic variables associated with overall survival (OS) and relapse in 43 pediatric patients who underwent a second HCT between 2000 and 2013. Eleven of the 43 patients who underwent transplantation remain alive and disease-free at a median follow-up of 49 months (range, 5 to 127 months). The 5-year probability of OS for the entire cohort was 24%. Patients who had early relapse (<6 months) after first HCT had significantly worse OS than those who relapsed late (>6 months), with 5-year OS at 11% versus 34%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 4.93; P= .013). Active disease at time of second HCT was also associated with a significantly increased risk of relapse (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 2.36; P= .049) for the entire cohort and relapse was the most frequent cause of death (23 of 32; 72%). On subgroup analysis for the 34 patients with leukemia alone, presence of active disease was associated both with a significant decrease in OS (SHR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 5.09; P= .044) and significant increase in the rate of relapse (SHR, 2.46; P= .046). By contrast, underlying disease, donor source, conditioning regimen, or development of GVHD did not modify OS or rate of relapse. Hence, a second HCT appears to be a useful therapeutic option in children with relapsed hematological malignancies that is most likely to benefit those individuals with late onset of relapse and with low disease burden at the time of transplantation.
- Hematological malignancies
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Remission status
- Second transplantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas