OSLD nanoDot characterization for carbon radiotherapy dosimetry

Paige A. Taylor, Shannon Hartzell, Alfredo Mirandola, Mario Ciocca, Giuseppe Magro, Paola Alvarez, Christine B. Peterson, Christopher R. Peeler, Eugene J. Koay, Rebecca M. Howell, Stephen F. Kry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. This study characterized optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD) nanoDots for use in a therapeutic carbon beam using the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) framework for remote output verification. Approach. The absorbed dose correction factors for OSLD (fading, linearity, beam quality, angularity, and depletion), as defined by AAPM TG 191, were characterized for carbon beams. For the various correction factors, the effect of linear energy transfer (LET) was examined by characterizing in both a low and high LET setting. Main results. Fading was not statistically different between reference photons and carbon, nor between low and high LET beams; thus, the standard IROC-defined exponential function could be used to characterize fading. Dose linearity was characterized with a linear fit; while low and high LET carbon linearity was different, these differences were small and could be rolled into the uncertainty budget if using a single linearity correction. A linear fit between beam quality and dose-averaged LET was determined. The OSLD response at various angles of incidence was not statistically different, thus a correction factor need not be applied. There was a difference in depletion between low and high LET irradiations in a primary carbon beam, but this difference was small over the standard five readings. The largest uncertainty associated with the use of OSLDs in carbon was because of the k Q correction factor, with an uncertainty of 6.0%. The overall uncertainty budget was 6.3% for standard irradiation conditions. Significance. OSLD nanoDot response was characterized in a therapeutic carbon beam. The uncertainty was larger than for traditional photon applications. These findings enable the use of OSLDs for carbon absorbed dose measurements, but with less accuracy than conventional OSLD audit programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115001
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 7 2024


  • audits
  • carbon therapy
  • dosimetry
  • OSLD
  • quality assurance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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