Optical Properties and Molar Hemoglobin Concentration of Skeletal Muscles Measured in Vivo with Wearable Near Infrared Spectroscopy

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7 Scopus citations


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a widely-used noninvasive optical technique for measuring concentration of hemoglobin species in human tissues. Despite its potential, NIRS has seen limited clinical application largely due to a lack of in-vivo standard reference. Hence, cross-validation studies to validate novel NIRS instrumentation against established NIRS devices are needed. This in-vivo study compared a wearable continuous-wave (CW-NIRS) oximeter against a non-wearable frequency-domain (FD-NIRS) oximeter on optical properties and hemoglobin concentrations. To measure absolute coefficients and stoichiometric hemoglobin concentrations, the CW-NIRS oximeter exploits spectral properties of water. Both CW-NIRS and FD-NIRS provided physiologically-valid measurements in skeletal muscles during normoxia, hypoxia, and hyperemia. Although absorption-scattering crosstalk was evident, absorption coefficient μ-A and reduced scattering coefficient μ'-s at 690nm and deoxyhemoglobin concentration (HbR) were mostly within agreement limits, and the measurements differed principally by a systematic offset. Specifically, CW-NIRS estimated larger μ-s values (+2 cm-1) and smaller μ-A (from-0.04 to-0.08 cm-1) at all wavelengths. The results suggest that lower-cost, wearable CW-NIRS oximeters are a potential alternative to FD-NIRS to measure optical properties and molar concentration of oxyhemoglobin and HbR in skeletal muscles in-vivo as long as the estimated water content is reasonably accurate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2326-2334
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 15 2018


  • Near-infrared spectroscopy
  • absorption
  • hemoglobin
  • scattering
  • tissue oxygenation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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