Objectives: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel, real-time endoscopic imaging modality that permits delineation of microarchitectural features of bladder lesions. It may provide an extension of conventional cystoscopy by allowing noninvasive examination of bladder tissue at microscopic resolution (10 to 20 μm). The purpose of this study was to examine the application of OCT in augmenting the diagnosis and staging of bladder lesions. Methods: We conducted a retrospective institutional review board-approved, single-institution, single-user review on the use of OCT as an adjunct to conventional cystoscopy in 32 patients with a history of bladder cancer (24), primary tumor (6), prostate cancer (1), or hematuria (1). We obtained OCT images of suspicious areas before biopsy or resection, interpreted them in real time, and subsequently compared them with pathology results. Results: We obtained 94 images in 32 patients undergoing bladder biopsy or transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Age of the patients ranged from 49 to 84 years (mean, 59 years), with 25 men (78%) and 7 women (22%). We correlated 38 suspicious areas with biopsy findings. OCT imaging correctly identified tumors confined to the mucosa with a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 89%, respectively. Muscle-invasive tumors were detected in 7 of 7 lesions with 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 92% accuracy. Conclusions: Optical coherence tomography is a rapid, easy-to-use tool that can help differentiate Ta and T1 tumors and identify muscle-invasive bladder tumors. It provides real-time microarchitectural information that can aid in the evaluation of bladder tumors and adjacent and remote urothelium.
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