Opioid Use among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women and the Risk for Maternal-Fetal Complications

Ngoc H. Nguyen, Erika N. Le, Vanessa O. Mbah, Emily B. Welsh, Rana Daas, Kiara K. Spooner, Jason L. Salemi, Omonike A. Olaleye, Hamisu M. Salihu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective To assess patient-and hospital-level characteristics associated with opioid use in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women and fetal health outcomes. Methods Using the 2002-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we analyzed discharge records to describe the rates of opioid use among HIV-positive pregnant women. Logistic regression was used to quantify the magnitude of the association between exposure status and maternal-fetal outcomes. Results Opioid use was fourfold greater among HIV-positive pregnant women compared with their HIV-negative counterparts (odds ratio 4.0; 95% confidence interval 3.15-5.12). Relatively smaller but significant increases in the early onset of delivery, poor fetal growth, abortive pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion also were observed in association with HIV-positive status and opioid drug use during pregnancy. Conclusions An increased risk of negative maternal-fetal complications persists among HIV-positive women who use opioids during pregnancy. Focusing on predisposing factors and monitoring opioid dispensing may mitigate overuse or abuse in this vulnerable population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)292-297
Number of pages6
JournalSouthern Medical Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • HIV
  • maternal-fetal complications
  • opioid use
  • pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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