Objective: To assess whether a multimodal opioid-limiting protocol and patient education intervention can reduce postoperative opioid use following transurethral resection of the prostate. Methods: This prospective, non-blinded, single-institution, randomized controlled trial (NCT04102566) assigned 50 patients undergoing a transurethral resection of the prostate to either a standard of care control (SOC) or multimodal experimental group (MMG). The intervention included adding ibuprofen to the postoperative pain regimen, promoting appropriate opioid use while hospitalized, an educational intervention, and discharging without opioid prescription. Data regarding demographics, operative data, opioid use, pain scores, and patient satisfaction were compared. Results: A total of 47 patients were included, n = 23 (MMG) and n = 24 (SOC). Demographic and operative findings were similar. Statistical analysis for noninferiority demonstrated non-inferior inpatient pain control (mean pain score 2.5 MMG vs 2.4 SOC, P = 0.0003). The multimodal group used significantly fewer morphine milligram equivalents after discharge (0 vs 4.1, P = 0.04). Inpatient use was reduced but did not reach statistical significance (6.0 vs 9.8, P = 0.2). Mean satisfaction scores with pain control were similar (9.6 MMG vs 9.2 SOC, P = 0.32). No opioid prescriptions were requested after discharge. Adverse events and medication side effects were infrequent and largely similar between groups. Conclusion: Implementation of an opioid-limiting postoperative pain protocol and patient education resulted in no outpatient opioid use while maintaining patient satisfaction with pain control. Eliminating opioids following a common urologic procedure will decrease risk of opioid-related adverse events and have a positive downstream impact.
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