One year survival of HIV-infected veterans with CD4 < 100 cells/mm3: Data from a veteran cohort

Katharine Breaux, Susmitha Gadde, Edward A. Graviss, Maria C. Rodriguez-Barradas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Survival among HIV-infected patients markedly improved with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Easier to take and more effective HAART options have improved the one-year virologic success rate among naive patients. Numerous studies have shown that initiating HAART and restoration of CD4 cells positively impact survival. There are only a few evaluations that have been carried out on the changes in survival among patients who are severely immunosuppressed. We evaluated survival among a cohort of veterans with CD4<100 cells/mm 3 (CD4 < 100) in three time periods reflecting early, mid, and recent HAART. Using the HIV clinic database, all patients with CD4 < 100 seen between 1996 and 2004 were identified (n=394). Patients entered Cohorts 1 (n=219), 2 (n=72), and 3 (n=103) in 1996-1998, 1999-2001, and 2002-2004, respectively. Data on demographics, AIDS-defining illnesses, co-morbidities, treatment, CD4, and viral load (VL) were abstracted. Survival analysis controlling for the above variables was performed and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Rate of virologic suppression was higher for Cohort 2 when compared to Cohort 1 (63% vs. 46%, p0.05), but lower for Cohort 3 when compared to Cohort 2 (49%, p0.05). Survival at one year was high for Cohorts 1 and 2 (92-95%), but significantly lower in Cohort 3 (80%). On logistic regression analysis and for the whole cohort, HAART use, achieving a CD4 > 200 and < VL400 were independent predictors of survival. Older age at cohort entry and having a diagnosis of lymphoma, Mycobacterium avium complex infection, coronary artery disease, or renal insufficiency were negative predictors. In the most recent HAART period 2002-2004, one year survival after CD4 100 significantly decreased in spite of availability of specialized HIV clinical and support services and antiretrovirals. Our results suggest that more than better drugs are needed for improving survival among certain patient populations with advanced immunosuppression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)886-894
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2010


  • AIDS
  • CD4
  • survival
  • US veterans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology


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