One hundred years after "carcinoid": Epidemiology of and prognostic factors for neuroendocrine tumors in 35,825 cases in the United States

James C. Yao, Manal Hassan, Alexandria Phan, Cecile Dagohoy, Colleen Leary, Jeannette E. Mares, Eddie K. Abdalla, Jason B. Fleming, Jean Nicolas Vauthey, Asif Rashid, Douglas B. Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3409 Scopus citations


Purpose: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are considered rare tumors and can produce a variety of hormones. In this study, we examined the epidemiology of and prognostic factors for NETs, because a thorough examination of neither had previously been performed. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program registries were searched to identify NET cases from 1973 to 2004. Associated population data were used for incidence and prevalence analyses. Results: We identified 35,618 patients with NETs. We observed a significant increase in the reported annual age-adjusted incidence of NETs from 1973 (1.09/100,000) to 2004 (5.25/100,000). Using the SEER 9 registry data, we estimated the 29-year limited-duration prevalence of NETs on January 1, 2004, to be 9,263. Also, the estimated 29-year limited-duration prevalence in the United States on that date was 103,312 cases (35/100,000). The most common primary tumor site varied by race, with the lung being the most common in white patients, and the rectum being the most common in Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaskan Native, and African American patients. Additionally, survival duration varied by histologic grade. In multivariate analysis of patients with well-differentiated to moderately differentiated NETs, disease stage, primary tumor site, histologic grade, sex, race, age, and year of diagnosis were predictors of outcome (P < .001). Conclusion: We observed increased reported incidence of NETs and increased survival durations over time, suggesting that NETs are more prevalent than previously reported. Clinicians need to be become familiar with the natural history and patterns of disease progression, which are characteristic of these tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3063-3072
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number18
StatePublished - 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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