The paper addresses modeling of avascular and vascular tumor growth within the framework of continuum mechanics and the adopted numerical solution strategies. The models involve tumor cells, both viable and necrotic, healthy cells, extracellular matrix (ECM), interstitial fluid, neovasculature and co-opted blood vessels, nutrients, waste products, and their interaction and evolution. Attention is focused on the more recent models which are much richer than earlier ones, i.e. they address more aspects of this complicated problem. An important element is how the governing equations are obtained and how the many interfaces between the above listed components are dealt with. These considerations suggest the definition of different classes of models comprised of diffusion, single phase flow and multiphase flow models with or without a solid phase. A multiphase flow model in a deforming porous medium (ECM) is chosen as reference model since it appears to invoke the least number of simplifying assumptions and has the largest potential for further development. The strategies adopted in the choice of the many model dependent constitutive relationships are discussed in detail. Two applications referring to two different model classes conclude the paper.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science Applications
- Applied Mathematics