OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of lower genitourinary tract (LGUT) injury during hysterectomy for benign disease and identify risk factors for LGUT injury, with a specific focus on the effect of hysterectomy modality.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease from 2010 t o 2014 using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a multi-institutional prospective registry that captures perioperative surgical outcomes. We identified the occurrence of concomitant cystoscopy and therapeutic urologic interventions including endoscopic ureteric stenting, ureteric repair, bladder repair, cystectomy, and urinary diversion as a proxy for LGUT injuries. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS: We identified 101,021 patients treated with hysterectomy for benign disease: 18,610 (18.4%), 27,427 (27.2%), and 54,984 (54.4%) underwent vaginal, open, and laparoscopic hysterectomy, respectively. Cystoscopy was performed in 16,493 cases (16.3%). There were 2427 patients (2.4%) who underwent concomitant urologic intervention. Patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy had increased occurrence of urologic intervention, excluding cystoscopy (adjusted odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.69), compared to vaginal hysterectomy; no differences were found between open and vaginal hysterectomy or laparoscopic and open hysterectomy. Larger uteri, a postoperative diagnosis of endometriosis, increasing comorbidity, and African American race were associated with an increased odd of urologic intervention whereas concomitant cystoscopy was associated with a decreased chance.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of lower genitourinary tract intervention in benign hysterectomy is significant and may be higher than previously reported. Predisposing patient factors and operative technique are key risk factors.
- Journal Article