BACKGROUND: The authors analyzed the incidence and types of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in patients treated for medulloblastoma. METHODS: The authors compared the incidence of SMNs after radiotherapy (RT) for medulloblastoma in patients treated in 1973-2014 with the incidence in the general population with the multiple primary–standardized incidence ratio function of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9. Observed-to-expected incidence (O/E) ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported for the entire cohort and by disease site according to age at diagnosis, treatment era, and receipt of chemotherapy. P values <.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 1294 patients with medulloblastoma who received RT, 68 developed 75 SMNs. The O/E ratio for SMNs among all patients was 4.49 (95% CI, 3.53-5.62; P <.05). The site at highest risk was the central nervous system (CNS; O/E, 40.62; 95% CI, 25.46-61.51), which was followed by the endocrine system (O/E, 15.95; 95% CI, 9.12-25.91), bone (O/E, 14.45; 95% CI, 1.75-52.21), soft tissues (O/E, 9.01; 95% CI, 1.09-32.56), the digestive system (O/E, 5.03; 95% CI, 2.51-9.00), and the lymphatic/hematopoietic system (O/E, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.35-6.94). The O/E ratio was higher for patients given chemotherapy and RT (O/E, 5.52; 95% CI, 3.75-7.83) than for those given RT only (O/E, 3.96; 95% CI, 2.88-5.32). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with medulloblastoma are at elevated risk for SMNs in comparison with the general population. Variations in O/E for SMNs by organ systems were found for treatment modality, age at diagnosis, and time of diagnosis. The most common site, the CNS, was involved more often in younger patients and those given chemotherapy with RT.
- secondary malignancy risk incidence ratios
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research