Abstract

About three-fourths of the total world population live in the tropics but consume only 6% of worldwide food production and contribute 15% of the world's net revenue explaining the short life expectancy, high infantile mortality, and poor daily caloric intake; moreover, lack of clean drinking water and deficient sanitation promote water-borne infections, diarrhea, and risk of malabsorption that contribute to the prevalence of malnutrition in the tropics. One-third of the world's population consumes insufficient iodine increasing the risk for mental retardation and deafness due to maternal hypothyroidism. The main nutritional syndromes comprise protein-energy malnutrition (marasmus and kwashiorkor); nutritional neuropathies, myelopathies and neuromyelopathies, as well as specific deficiencies of vitamins and micronutrients including iodine, iron, zinc, and selenium.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-404
Number of pages24
JournalHandbook of Clinical Neurology
Volume114
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 12 2013

Keywords

  • α-tocopherol
  • Alcohol
  • Alcoholism
  • Beriberi
  • Burning feet
  • Cobalamin
  • Cuban epidemic neuropathy
  • Folic acid
  • Homocysteine
  • Hunger
  • Iodine
  • Iron
  • Kwashiorkor
  • Malnutrition
  • Marasmus
  • Micronutrient deficiencies
  • Myeloneuropathy
  • Niacin
  • Nicotinamide
  • Night blindness
  • Nutritional amblyopia
  • Nutritional brain atrophy
  • Nutritional myelopathy
  • Nutritional neuropathy
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Optic neuropathy
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Pellagra
  • Polyneuropathy
  • Prisoners of war
  • Psychomotor retardation
  • Pyridoxine deficiency
  • Riboflavin
  • Selenium
  • Subacute combined degeneration
  • Thiamin
  • Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B-complex
  • Vitamin B
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamins
  • Wernicke-Korsakoff

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology

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