Identification of mutations in the ATP binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) gene in patients with Tangier disease, who exhibit reduced HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels and premature coronary atherosclerosis, has led to the hypothesis that common polymorphisms in the ABCA1 gene could determine HDL-C and apoA1 levels and the risk of coronary atherosclerosis in the general population. We sequenced a 660-bp 5′ fragment of the ABCA1 gene in 24 subjects and identified 3 novel polymorphisms: -477C/T, -419A/C, and -320G/C. We developed assays, genotyped 372 participants in the prospective Lipoprotein Coronary Atherosclerosis Study (LCAS), and determined the association of the variants with fasting plasma lipids and indices of quantitative coronary angiograms obtained at baseline and 2.5 years after randomization to fluvastatin or placebo. Distribution of -477C/T and -320G/C genotypes were 127 CC, 171 CT, and 74 TT and 130 GG, 168 GC, and 75 CC, respectively, and were in complete linkage disequilibrium (P<0.0001). Data for -477C/T are presented. The -419A/C variant was uncommon (present in 1 of 63 subjects). Heterozygous subjects had a modest reduction in HDL-C (P=0.09) and apoA1 (P=0.05) levels and a lesser response of apoA1 to treatment with fluvastatin (P=0.04). The mean number of coronary lesions causing 30% to 75% diameter stenosis was greater in subjects with the TT genotype (3.1±2.1) or CT genotype (2.9±1.9) than in subjects with the CC genotype (2.2±1.8) (P=0.002). Similarly, compared with subjects with the CC genotype, greater numbers of subjects with the TT or CT genotype had ≥1 coronary lesion (P=0.001). No association between the genotypes and progression of coronary atherosclerosis or clinical events was detected. We conclude that ABCA1 genotypes are potential risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in the general population.
- Apolipoprotein A1
- ATP binding cassette transporter
- HDL cholesterol
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine