Background - Familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM) are the 2 most common forms of primary cardiac muscle diseases. Studies indicate that mutations in sarcomeric proteins are responsible for FHCM and suggest that mutations in cytoskeletal proteins cause FDCM. Evidence is evolving, however, that such conclusions are premature. Methods and Results - A novel missense mutation in the cardiac troponin T gene was identified by direct sequencing and confirmed by endonuclease restriction analysis in a large family with FDCM that we had previously mapped to chromosome 1q32. The mutation substitutes tryptophan for a highly conserved amino acid, arginine, at amino acid residue 141 (Arg141Trp). The mutation occurs within the tropomyosin-binding domain of cardiac troponin T and alters the charge of the residue. This mutation cosegregates with the disease, being present in all 14 living affected individuals. The mutation was not found in 100 normal control subjects. Clinical features were congestive heart failure with premature deaths. The age of onset and severity of the disease are highly variable, with incomplete penetrance. Because 15 mutations in troponin T are known to cause FHCM, 219 probands with FHCM were screened, and none had the mutation. Conclusions - Thus, the novel cardiac troponin T mutation Arg141Trp is responsible for FDCM in our family. Because several mutations in troponin T have already been recognized to be responsible for FHCM, it appears that the phenotype, whether it be hypertrophy or dilatation, is determined by the specific mutation rather than the gene.
- Molecular biology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine