NOVL in children is a relatively common problem for the comprehensive ophthalmologist. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of NOVL are variable, rare cases are because of physical or sexual abuse. Clinical tests can make the diagnosis of NOVL, and nonorganic is our preferred terminology for NOVL. Clinicians should be careful to establish a normal eye examination and prove that the vision is better than claimed before labeling a patient with NOVL. Rarely, the clinical examination is insufficient to establish the diagnosis of NOVL and electrophysiology may be helpful. Reassurance is generally all that is necessary for most children with NOVL, but some patients might benefit from formal psychiatric evaluation. The possibility of nonorganic overlay should also be considered in children with NOVL, and the combination of organic and NOVL is relatively common.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)107-123
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Ophthalmology Clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 18 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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