Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

Jyh Gong Gabriel Hou, Eugene C. Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


In addition to the typical motor symptoms (resting tremor, cogwheel rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability) of Parkinson's disease (PD), non-motor symptoms are sources of considerable burden in people with PD, especially in elderly patients. The usual non-motor symptoms include cognitive declines, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis, impulse control), autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, sexual ability, thermoregulation), sleep difficulties, and pain syndrome. This review article discusses the characteristics, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of these symptoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-64
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Gerontology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2007


  • Dementia
  • Depression
  • Dysautonomia
  • Non-motor symptoms
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Psychosis
  • Sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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