Nitrotyrosine and Chlorotyrosine: Clinical Significance and Biological Functions in the Vascular System

Imran Mohiuddin, Hong Chai, Peter H. Lin, Alan B. Lumsden, Qizhi Yao, Changyi Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations


The heme-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is both present and active in inflammatory conditions. This enzyme is potentiated by its formation of multiple inflammatory mediators. The two most common mediators are the modified tyrosines: nitrotyrosine and 3-chlorotyrosine. Along with other modified tyrosines, these molecules have been found to be elevated in atherosclerosis, lung disease, sepsis, vasculitis, and other inflammatory diseases. By treating some of these diseases, the levels of modified tyrosines have been shown to decrease. There have been a wide range of animal models designed to study the in vivo effects of these tyrosine molecules. In addition, there are also several reports in the literature of the in vitro actions of modified tyrosine molecules demonstrated by various cell-culture models. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the clinical significance and biological functions of these modified tyrosine molecules in atherosclerosis as well as a variety of other inflammatory conditions. It is timely information because of their association with diseases as well as lack of overview of their molecular actions. This review will focus on the formation, clinical significance, and animal and cell-culture models of these important molecules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-149
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 15 2006


  • atherosclerosis
  • chlorotyrosine
  • endothelial cell
  • inflammation
  • myeloperoxidase
  • nitrotyrosine
  • oxidative stress
  • tyrosine
  • vascular disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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