Newest Therapies for Cholangiocarcinoma: An Updated Overview of Approved Treatments with Transplant Oncology Vision

Yuqi Zhang, Abdullah Esmail, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Maen Abdelrahim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

A minority of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) can be cured by surgical intervention (i.e., liver resection (LR) and liver transplantation (LT)). When modern criteria for LT are met, this intervention along with neoadjuvant treatments may achieve unprecedented survival in selected patients. Liver resection is associated with a median overall survival (OS) of 40 months, this number drastically decreases for unresectable advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is treated with systemic therapy. The first-line chemotherapy regimen of gemcitabine and cisplatin is associated with a median overall survival of only 11.7 months. Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s approval of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 inhibitor ivosidenib in August 2021, there has been increasing interest in targeted therapy for CCA patients harboring mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK), B-raf kinase (BRAF), and HER2. At the same time, immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors isalso being used in relapsed CCA. This review looks into the most recently completed and ongoing studies of targeted therapy as monotherapy or in combination with chemo- and/or immunotherapy. Whether it is resection, liver transplant, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or any combination of these treatment modalities, great strides are being made to improve outcomes for this challenging disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5074
JournalCancers
Volume14
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Keywords

  • cholangiocarcinoma
  • immunotherapy
  • targeted therapy
  • transplant oncology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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