In this review, the authors describe evolving alternative strategies for the management of AF, focusing on non-invasive and percutaneous autonomic modulation. This modulation can be achieved – among other approaches – via tragus stimulation, renal denervation, cardiac afferent denervation, alcohol injection in the vein of Marshall, baroreceptor activation therapy and endocardial ganglionated plexi ablation. Although promising, these therapies are currently under investigation but could play a role in the treatment of AF in combination with conventional pulmonary vein isolation in the near future.
- Vein of Marshall
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine