Background: Although there is evidence of socioeconomic disparities in survival of children diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) tumors, the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation on the survival of these malignancies has not been adequately studied. We investigated the association between area deprivation index (ADI), a measure of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, and pediatric CNS tumor survival. Methods: Demographic and clinical characteristics, geocoded addresses at diagnosis, and vital status of pediatric CNS tumor cases (n = 5,477) for the period 1995 to 2017 were obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. ADI scores were computed for census tracts in Texas using the U.S. Census Bureau 2010 geography. Tracts were classified into quartiles as least, third-most, second-most, and most disadvantaged. Children were mapped to quartiles based on residency at diagnosis. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results: The results showed a significantly increased HR for death among children in the most (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09–1.51), second-most (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01–1.38), and third-most disadvantaged census tracts (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02–1.37) compared with children in the least disadvantaged tracts. Conclusions: Children living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods experienced a significantly higher risk of mortality, indicating the important role of socioeconomic disparities in the survival of pediatric CNS tumors. Impact: The demographic and socioeconomic disparities identified by this study should be considered when planning treatment strategies for these susceptible groups and thus, lead to a better outcome in socioeconomically disadvantaged children diagnosed with CNS tumors.
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