Nativity-Related Disparities in Preeclampsia and Cardiovascular Disease Risk among a Racially Diverse Cohort of US Women

Ellen Boakye, Yaa Adoma Kwapong, Olufunmilayo Obisesan, S. Michelle Ogunwole, Allison G. Hays, Khurram Nasir, Roger S. Blumenthal, Pamela S. Douglas, Michael J. Blaha, Xiumei Hong, Andreea A. Creanga, Xiaobin Wang, Garima Sharma

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Preeclampsia is an independent risk factor for future cardiovascular disease and disproportionally affects non-Hispanic Black women. The association of maternal nativity and duration of US residence with preeclampsia and other cardiovascular risk factors is well described among non-Hispanic Black women but not among women of other racial and ethnic groups. Objective: To examine differences in cardiovascular risk factors and preeclampsia prevalence by race and ethnicity, nativity, and duration of US residence among Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White women. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional analysis of the Boston Birth Cohort included a racially diverse cohort of women who had singleton deliveries at the Boston Medical Center from October 1, 1998, to February 15, 2016. Participants self-identified as Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, or non-Hispanic White. Data were analyzed from March 1 to March 31, 2021. Exposures: Maternal nativity and duration of US residence (<10 vs ≥10 years) were self-reported. Main Outcome and Measures: Diagnosis of preeclampsia, the outcome of interest, was retrieved from maternal medical records. Results: A total of 6096 women (2400 Hispanic, 2699 non-Hispanic Black, and 997 non-Hispanic White) with a mean (SD) age of 27.5 (6.3) years were included in the study sample. Compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women, non-Hispanic Black women had the highest prevalence of chronic hypertension (204 of 2699 [7.5%] vs 65 of 2400 [2.7%] and 28 of 997 [2.8%], respectively), obesity (658 of 2699 [24.4%] vs 380 of 2400 [15.8%] and 152 of 997 [15.2%], respectively), and preeclampsia (297 of 2699 [11.0%] vs 212 of 2400 [8.8%] and 71 of 997 [7.1%], respectively). Compared with their counterparts born outside the US, US-born women in all 3 racial and ethnic groups had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (Hispanic women, 132 of 556 [23.7%] vs 248 of 1844 [13.4%]; non-Hispanic Black women, 444 of 1607 [27.6%] vs 214 of 1092 [19.6%]; non-Hispanic White women, 132 of 776 [17.0%] vs 20 of 221 [9.0%]), smoking (Hispanic women, 98 of 556 [17.6%] vs 30 of 1844 [1.6%]; non-Hispanic Black women, 330 of 1607 [20.5%] vs 53 of 1092 [4.9%]; non-Hispanic White women, 382 of 776 [49.2%] vs 42 of 221 [19.0%]), and severe stress (Hispanic women, 76 of 556 [13.7%] vs 85 of 1844 [4.6%]; non-Hispanic Black women, 231 of 1607 [14.4%] vs 120 of 1092 [11.0%]; non-Hispanic White women, 164 of 776 [21.1%] vs 26 of 221 [11.8%]). After adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, birth status outside the US (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.55-1.00]) and shorter duration of US residence (aOR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.41-0.93]) were associated with lower odds of preeclampsia among non-Hispanic Black women. However, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women, maternal nativity (aOR for Hispanic women, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.72-1.60]; aOR for non-Hispanic White women, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.49-1.96]) and duration of US residence (aOR for Hispanic women <10 years, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.67-1.59]; aOR for non-Hispanic White women <10 years, 1.20 [95% CI, 0.48-3.02]) were not associated with preeclampsia. Conclusions and Relevance: Nativity-related disparities in preeclampsia persisted among non-Hispanic Black women but not among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women after adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is needed to explore the interplay of factors contributing to nativity-related disparities in preeclampsia, particularly among non-Hispanic Black women..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2139564
JournalJAMA Network Open
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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