Nanoparticle shape conservation in the conversion of MnO nanocrosses into Mn3O4

Irene Rusakova, Teyeb Ould-Ely, Cristina Hofmann, Darío Prieto-Centurión, Carly S. Levin, Naomi J. Halas, Andreas Lüttge, Kenton H. Whitmire

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67 Scopus citations


The conversion of hexagonal-, square-, and cross-shaped MnO nanoparticles into mixed MnO - Mn3O4 nanoparticles occurs with retention of the nanoparticle shape. Upon aging, extra diffraction spots appear in the TEM analyses of both hexagonal- and cross-shaped nanoparticles (NPs). These extra diffraction spots can be assigned to the spinel form of Mn 3O4 (s-Mn3O4) and exhibit moiré interference patterns arising from the presence of two closely aligned, crystallographically similar phases. Examination of a variety of reaction conditions showed that the transformation of MnO into MnO/Mn 3O4 occurred while the particles are suspended in hexane at ambient temperature, by refluxing in hexadecane for 36 h, by heating to 200 °C in air, and by irradiating the NPs with a Raman laser beam. The crystal phase development and shape retention can be observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Single-crystal and polycrystalline selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and dark-field TEM images confirm the coexistence of both MnO and s-Mn3O4 phases. Evaluation of the polycrystalline SAED patterns after irradiation in the Raman spectrometer indicated the presence of rings assignable to the tetragonal phase of Mn 3O4 (t-Mn3O4) as well as MnO and s-Mn3O4. The growth of the tetragonal phase by laser heating in the Raman experiment was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1369-1375
Number of pages7
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 20 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Materials Science(all)


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