The first three cases of myxoid leiomyosarcoma occurring in the ovary are reported. Two cases in stage III were found in postmenopausal patients and a further case was found in stage I in a 32-year-old. All masses were large and gelatinous with cystic change, necrosis, and hemorrhage, but both uteri and ligaments and contralateral adnexa appeared normal. Microscopically, the tumors showed a predominantly reticular meshwork of elongated cells surrounded by abundant basophilic material. While electron microscopy proved inconclusive due to nondifferentiation, the use of monoclonal antibodies against smooth muscle actin demonstrated a smooth muscle type of differentiation. The differential diagnosis of this rare ovarian condition includes other myxoid ovarian lesions, such as ovarian edema, myxoma, endodermal sinus tumors, and the sarcomatous component of malignant mixed müllerian tumor and carcinosarcoma, as well as lymphovascular tumors. Since mitotic count due to decreased cellular density is unusually low in myxoid leiomyosarcoma, capsular rupture and clinical stage seem to be more reliable prognostic markers. The highly aggressive behavior of myxoid leiomyosarcoma parallels that of typical ovarian leiomyosarcoma. Two of the three patients in this series died of tumor at 13 and 24 months after diagnosis; the other patient is free of disease at 3 years after diagnosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine