Mutagenesis identifies new signals for β-amyloid precursor protein endocytosis, turnover, and the generation of secreted fragments, including Aβ42

Ruth G. Perez, Salvador Soriano, Jay D. Hayes, Beth Ostaszewski, Weiming Xia, Dennis J. Selkoe, Xiaohua Chen, Gorazd B. Stokin, Edward H. Koo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

326 Scopus citations

Abstract

It has long been assumed that the C-terminal motif, NPXY, is the internalization signal for β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and that the NPXY tyrosine (Tyr743 by APP751 numbering, Tyr682 in APP695) is required for APP endocytosis. To evaluate this tenet and to identify the specific amino acids subserving APP endocytosis, we mutated all tyrosines in the APP cytoplasmic domain and amino acids within the sequence GYENPTY (amino acids 737-743). Stable cell lines expressing these mutations were assessed for APP endocytosis, secretion, and turnover. Normal APP endocytosis was observed for cells expressing Y709A, G737A, and Y743A mutations. However, Y738A, N740A, and P741A or the double mutation of Y738A/P741A significantly impaired APP internalization to a level similar to that observed for cells lacking nearly the entire APP cytoplasmic domain (ΔC), arguing that the dominant signal for APP endocytosis is the tetrapeptide YENP. Although not an APP internalization signal, Tyr743 regulates rapid APP turnover because half-life increased by 50% with the Y743A mutation alone. Secretion of the APP-derived proteolytic fragment, Aβ, was tightly correlated with APP internalization, such that Aβ secretion was unchanged for cells having normal APP endocytosis but significantly decreased for endocytosis-deficient cell lines. Remarkably, secretion of the Aβ42 isoform was also reduced in parallel with endocytosis from internalization-deficient cell lines, suggesting an important role for APP endocytosis in the secretion of this highly pathogenic Aβ species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18851-18856
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume274
Issue number27
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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