Multiscale agent-based modeling of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: Effects of tissue damage and hemodynamics on cellular activity

Anna Corti, Monika Colombo, Francesco Migliavacca, Scott A. Berceli, Stefano Casarin, Jose F. Rodriguez Matas, Claudio Chiastra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Restenosis following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in femoral arteries is a major cause of failure of the revascularization procedure. The arterial wall response to PTA is driven by multifactorial, multiscale processes, whose complete understanding is lacking. Multiscale agent-based modeling frameworks, simulating the network of mechanobiological events at cell-tissue scale, can contribute to decipher the pathological pathways of restenosis. In this context, the present study proposes a fully-automated multiscale agent-based modeling framework simulating the arterial wall remodeling due to the wall damage provoked by PTA and to the altered hemodynamics in the post-operative months. Methods: The framework, applied to an idealized femoral artery model, integrated: (i) a PTA module (i.e., structural mechanics simulation), computing the post-PTA arterial morphology and the PTA-induced damage (ii) a hemodynamics module (i.e., computational fluid dynamics simulations), quantifying the near-wall hemodynamics, and (iii) a tissue remodeling module simulating cellular activities through an agent-based model. Results: The framework was able to capture relevant features of the 3-month arterial wall response to PTA, namely (i) the impact of the PTA-induced damage and altered hemodynamics on arterial wall remodeling, including the local intimal growth at the most susceptible regions (i.e., elevated damage levels and low wall shear stress), (ii) the lumen area temporal trend resulting from the interaction of the two inputs, and (iii) a 3-month lumen area restenosis of ∼25%, in accordance with clinical evidence. Conclusions: The overall results demonstrated the framework potentiality in capturing mechanobiological processes underlying restenosis, thus fostering future application to patient-specific scenarios.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105753
Pages (from-to)105753
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • Agent-based modeling (ABM)
  • Arterial wall remodeling
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Femoral artery
  • Finite element analysis
  • Mechanobiology
  • Multiscale modeling
  • Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)
  • Restenosis
  • Systems biology
  • Angioplasty
  • Constriction, Pathologic
  • Humans
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Systems Analysis
  • Angioplasty, Balloon
  • Hemodynamics
  • Femoral Artery/surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications


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