Multiple sclerosis lesion geometry in quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and phase imaging

Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Kofi Deh, Ajay Gupta, Tian Liu, Cynthia Wisnieff, Moonsoo Jin, Susan A. Gauthier, Yi Wang, Pascal Spincemaille

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Purpose To demonstrate the phase and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) patterns created by solid and shell spatial distributions of magnetic susceptibility in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Materials and Methods Numerical simulations and experimental phantoms of solid- and shell-shaped magnetic susceptibility sources were used to generate magnitude, phase, and QSM images. Imaging of 20 consecutive MS patients was also reviewed for this Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved MRI study to identify the appearance of solid and shell lesions on phase and QSM images. Results Solid and shell susceptibility sources were correctly reconstructed in QSM images, while the corresponding phase images depicted both geometries with shell-like patterns, making the underlying susceptibility distribution difficult to determine using phase alone. In MS patients, of the 60 largest lesions identified on T2, 30 lesions were detected on both QSM and phase, of which 83% were solid and 17% were shells on QSM, and of which 30% were solid and 70% were shell on phase. Of the 21 shell-like lesions on phase, 76% appeared solid on QSM, 24% appeared shell on QSM. Of the five shell-like lesions on QSM, all were shell-like on phase. Conclusion QSM accurately depicts both solid and shell patterns of magnetic susceptibility, while phase imaging fails to distinguish them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)224-229
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


  • iron
  • multiple sclerosis
  • phase
  • quantitative susceptibility mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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