Background: Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare cancer of the nasal cavity in children. Radical surgery followed by postoperative radiation is considered the standard of care in adults. A similar approach in children can lead to significant long-term morbidity. Procedure: A retrospective multi-institutional review of patients less than 21 years of age diagnosed with ENB between 1990 and 2014 was performed. Clinical features, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the medical records. Results: Twenty-four patients were identified with a median age of 14 years (range 0.6-20 years) at diagnosis. The majority (75%) were females. Headache was the most common presenting symptom, followed by nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Eight patients had Kadish stage B tumors and 16 had Kadish stage C tumors. Nine patients had metastatic disease. Gross total resection was achieved at diagnosis in eight patients and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in four patients. Twenty-one patients received radiation therapy (45-68.4 Gy). Thirteen patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 84% objective response rate. Seven patients experienced disease progression or relapse-five in central nervous system, one local, and one in cervical lymph node. Fifteen patients were alive at the last follow-up. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 74% and 73%, respectively. Late effects were observed in 78% of long-term survivors. Four patients developed subsequent malignant neoplasms. Conclusions: Pediatric ENB is a chemosensitive disease. Preoperative chemotherapy-based multimodal approach should be used in patients with advanced stage disease. Radiation therapy is effective for local control, but lower doses should be considered in children.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health