Multimodal nonlinear endo-microscopy probe design for high resolution, label-free intraoperative imaging

Xu Chen, Xiaoyun Xu, Daniel T. McCormick, Kelvin Wong, Stephen T C Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


We present a portable, multimodal, nonlinear endo-microscopy probe designed for intraoperative oncological imaging. Application of a four-wave mixing noise suppression scheme using dual wavelength wave plates (DWW) and a polarization-maintaining fiber improves tissue signal collection efficiency, allowing for miniaturization. The probe, with a small 14 mm transversal diameter, includes a customized miniaturized two-axis MEMS (micro-electromechanical system) raster scanning mirror and micro-optics with an illumination laser delivered by a polarization-maintaining fiber. The probe can potentially be integrated into the arms of a surgical robot, such as da Vinci robotic surgery system, due to its minimal cross sectional area. It has the ability to incorporate multiple imaging modalities including CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering), SHG (second harmonic generation), and TPEF (two-photon excited fluorescence) in order to allow the surgeon to locate tumor cells within the context of normal stromal tissue. The resolution of the endo-microscope is experimentally determined to be 0.78 µm, a high level of accuracy for such a compact probe setup. The expected resolution of the as-built multimodal, nonlinear, endo-microscopy probe is 1 µm based on the calculation tolerance allocation using Monte-Carlo simulation. The reported probe is intended for use in laparoscopic or radical prostatectomy, including detection of tumor margins and avoidance of nerve impairment during surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA001
Pages (from-to)2283-2293
Number of pages11
JournalBiomedical Optics Express
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biotechnology


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