Objective To determine the effect of disseminated cancer on perioperative outcomes following radical nephrectomy. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for kidney cancer from 2005 to 2014 using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a multi-institutional prospective registry that captures perioperative surgical complications. Patients were stratified according to the presence (n = 657) or absence (n = 7143) of disseminated cancer at the time of surgery. We examined major complications (death, reoperation, cardiac event, or neurologic event) within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary, infectious, venous thromboembolic, and bleeding complications; prolonged length of stay; and concomitant procedures (bowel, liver, spleen, pancreas, and vascular procedures). Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logical regression models. Results Patients with disseminated cancer were older and more likely to be male, have greater comorbidities, and have undergone open surgery. Major complications were more common among patients with disseminated cancer (7.8%) than those without disseminated cancer (3.2%; aOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.46-2.86). Mortality was significantly higher in patients with disseminated cancer (3.2%) than those without disseminated cancer (0.5%; P < .0001). Pulmonary (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.09-2.59), thromboembolic (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.01-2.96), and bleeding complications (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.73-2.60) were more common among patients with disseminated cancer as was prolonged length of stay (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.06-1.53). Conclusion Nephrectomy in patients with disseminated cancer is a morbid operation with significant perioperative mortality. These data may be used for preoperative counseling of patients undergoing cytoreductive nephrectomy.
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