Inflammation and lipid accumulation are two basic hallmarks of atherosclerosis as a chronic disease. Inflammation not only is a local response but can also be considered as a systemic process followed by an elevation of inflammatory mediators. Monocytes are a major source of proinflammatory species during atherogenesis. In atherosclerosis, modified low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are removed by macrophages; these are recruited in the vessel wall, inducing the release of inflammatory cytokines in inflamed tissue. Hence, inflammatory cholesterol ester-loaded plaque is generated. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) exhibits antiatherosclerotic effects by neutralizing the proinflammatory and pro-oxidant effects of monocytes via inhibiting the migration of macrophages and LDL oxidation in addition to the efflux of cholesterol from these cells. Furthermore, HDL plays a role in suppressing the activation of monocytes and proliferation–differentiation of monocyte progenitor cells. Thus, accumulation of monocytes and reduction of HDL-C may participate in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Given that the relationship between the high number of monocytes and low HDL-C levels has been reported in inflammatory disorders, this review focused on understanding whether the monocyte-to-HDL ratio could be a convenient marker to predict atherosclerosis development and progression, hallmarks of CV events, instead of the individual monocyte count or HDL-C level.
- cardiovascular diseases (CVD)
- high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology