Techniques now exist to correct abnormalities of all components of the mitral valvular apparatus except extensive loss of pliable leaflet area. Thus, paradoxically, myxomatous valves with redundant leaflets represent the ideal candidates for mitral valve repair. Repair for mitral insufficiency can be performed for some rheumatic valves, but patient selection is critical. Loss of leaflet area, leaflet thickening, and extensive calcification of the leaflets or commissures are contraindications to repair. The abnormalities of the subvalvular apparatus are less important because a complete set of new chordae can be reconstructed using PTFE suture material. Some cases of endocarditis are ideal for repair using localized debridement and pericardial patch repair with or without PTFE chordal replacement. True ischemic mitral regurgitation of the Carpentier type I category is still something of a surgical enigma. Because it is a restrictive leaflet motion problem, annuloplasty alone is not always effective, and the outcome of any given repair attempt is less predictable. Repairs in patients with small annuli and multiple leaflet defects requiring complex series of maneuvers have a low probability of success. Furthermore, such patients with small left ventricular cavities are more prone to experience SAM. Several factors contributing to which therapy is chosen for mitral valve disease are summarized in Table 1. Patient selection, accurate evaluation of the cause or causes of mitral regurgitation, and well-executed application of the appropriate techniques for repair are all critical factors in the early and late success of mitral valve repair.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine