Liver X receptors, LXRa and LXRβ, are nuclear receptors belonging to the large family of transcription factors. After activation by oxysterols, LXRs play a central role in the control of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammation. The role of LXRα has been extensively studied, particularly in the liver and macrophages. In the liver it prevents cholesterol accumulation by increasing bile acid synthesis and secretion into the bile through ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 transporters, whereas in macrophages it increases cholesterol reverse transport. The function of LXRβ is still under investigation with most of the current knowledge coming from the study of phenotypes of LXRβ-/- mice. With these mice new emerging roles for LXRβ have been demonstrated in the pathogenesis of diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and chronic pancreatitis. The present review will focus on the abnormalities described so far in LXRβ-/- mice and the insight gained into the possible roles of LXRβ in human diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology