Microfabricated and 3-D printed soft bioelectronic constructs from PAn-PAAMPSA-containing hydrogels

John R. Aggas, Sara Abasi, Blake Smith, Michael Zimmerman, Michael Deprest, Anthony Guiseppi-Elie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The formation of hybrid bioactive and inherently conductive constructs of composites formed from polyaniline-polyacrylamidomethylpropane sulfonic acid (PAn-PAAMPSA) nanomaterials (0.00–10.0 wt%) within poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate-co-N-{Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl} acrylamide)-co-polyethyleneglycol methacrylate) p(HEMA-co-HMMA-co-PEGMA) hydrogels was made possible using microlithographic fabrication and 3-D printing. Hybrid constructs formed by combining a non-conductive base (0.00 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA) and electroconductive (ECH) (varying wt% PAn-PAAMPSA) hydrogels using these two production techniques were directly compared. Hydrogels were electrically characterized using two-point probe resistivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results show that incorporation of >0.10 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA within the base hydrogel matrices was enough to achieve percolation and high conductivity with a membrane resistance (RM) of 2140 Ω and 87.9 Ω for base (0.00 wt%) and ECH (10.0 wt%), respectively. UV-vis spectroscopy of electroconductive hydrogels indicated a bandgap of 2.8 eV that was measurable at concentrations of >0.10 wt% PAn-PAAMPSA. Both base and electroconductive hydrogels supported the attachment and growth of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells. When the base hydrogel was rendered bioactive by the inclusion of collagen (>200 µg/mL), it also supported the attachment, but not the differentiation, of PC-12 neural progenitor cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number87
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2018


  • 3-D printing
  • 4-D hydrogels
  • Collagen
  • Electrical impedance spectroscopy
  • Electroconductive hydrogels
  • Microfabrication
  • NIH/3T3
  • PC-12
  • Polyaniline

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Microfabricated and 3-D printed soft bioelectronic constructs from PAn-PAAMPSA-containing hydrogels'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this