Metastatic retinoblastoma results from extraocular spread of tumor cells from the eye, most commonly via direct optic nerve invasion to the central nervous system (CNS), choroidal/scleral invasion to the orbit, or lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination to distant viscera. Survival outcomes for children with extraocular and metastatic retinoblastoma (without CNS involvement) have dramatically improved since the incorporation of intense, multimodal treatment with surgical resection, systemic chemotherapy, and consideration of external beam radiation therapy. However, survival remains dismal for patients with CNS disease. This chapter reviews the work-up, treatment strategies and outcomes of management in children with metastatic retinoblastoma.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Retinoblastoma|
|Subtitle of host publication||Diagnosis to Management|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Number of pages||16|
|State||Published - Aug 30 2022|
ASJC Scopus subject areas