Metastatic retinoblastoma

Frank Y. Lin, Patricia Chévez-Barrios, Murali Chintagumpala

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Metastatic retinoblastoma results from extraocular spread of tumor cells from the eye, most commonly via direct optic nerve invasion to the central nervous system (CNS), choroidal/scleral invasion to the orbit, or lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination to distant viscera. Survival outcomes for children with extraocular and metastatic retinoblastoma (without CNS involvement) have dramatically improved since the incorporation of intense, multimodal treatment with surgical resection, systemic chemotherapy, and consideration of external beam radiation therapy. However, survival remains dismal for patients with CNS disease. This chapter reviews the work-up, treatment strategies and outcomes of management in children with metastatic retinoblastoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRetinoblastoma
Subtitle of host publicationDiagnosis to Management
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9798886971361
ISBN (Print)9781685079697
StatePublished - Aug 30 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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