Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers

Zhiwei Li, Bahman Anvari, Masayoshi Takashima, Peter Brecht, Jorge H. Torres, William E. Brownell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

122 Scopus citations


Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-μm polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499 ± 152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142 ± 49 pN). The difference in the force required to pull tethers is consistent with an extensive cytoskeletal framework associated with the lateral wall known as the cortical lattice. The apparent plasma membrane stiffness, estimated under the static conditions by measuring tether force at different tether length, was 3.71 pN/μm for OHC lateral wall and 4.57 pN/μm for OHC basal end. The effective membrane viscosity was measured by pulling tethers at different rates while continuously recording the tether force, and estimated in the range of 2.39 to 5.25 pNs/μm. The viscous force most likely results from the viscous interactions between plasma membrane lipids and the OHC cortical lattice and/or integral membrane proteins. The information these studies provide on the mechanical properties of the OHC lateral wall is important for understanding the mechanism of OHC electromotility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1386-1395
Number of pages10
JournalBiophysical Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics


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