Mechanisms of death in low risk patients after transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement

Basel Ramlawi, G. Michael Deeb, Steven J. Yakubov, Alan H. Markowitz, G. Chad Hughes, Robert B. Kiaii, Jian Huang, Neal S. Kleiman, Michael J. Reardon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Death in high- and intermediate-risk patients after self-expanding transcatheter (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (surgery) differed in mechanisms and timing. In both risk groups, 1-year all-cause mortality was lower in TAVR than in surgery patients. The differences in mechanism and timing of death in low-risk patients has not been studied. This report explores the mechanisms of death during 3 time periods; 0 to 30 days (early), 31 to 120 days (recovery), and 121 to 365 days (late). Methods: We retrospectively examined the mechanisms and timing of death following TAVR or surgery in the randomized Evolut Low Risk Trial. Patients were enrolled between March 2016 and November 2018 from 86 designated TAVR centers. Mechanisms of death were categorized as due to technical reasons, failure to repair, complications linked to death, failure to recover or other. Results: All-cause mortality at 1 year was 2.2% for TAVR and 2.8% for surgery, p = 0.44. Early deaths included 3 TAVR patients, all due to technical reasons, and 8 surgery patients (1 technical, 5 complications and 2 failed to recover). Recovery period deaths included 6 TAVR patients (4 complications, 1 failed to recover and 1 other), and 1 surgery patient from complications of valve endocarditis. Late period deaths included 6 TAVR patients and 9 surgery patients, primarily due to complications. Conclusions: In this low-risk study cohort, no patient died from failure to repair the valve; reduction in procedural complications in the TAVR and surgery groups remain opportunities for further improvement in outcomes. Clinical Trial Registrations (clinicaltrials.gov): NCT02701283 (Evolut Low Risk).

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCardiovascular Revascularization Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Low risk
  • Surgical aortic valve replacement
  • Transcatheter aortic valve intervention
  • Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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