The activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9/gelatinase B (MMP-9), an enzyme implicated in the implantation process in mice, was investigated in normal and parthenogenetic blastocyst outgrowths. Conditioned media from parthenogenetic blastocysts after 4 days of culture had reduced levels of MMP-9 activity compared to conditioned medium from normal outgrowths. Levels of MMP-9 mRNA assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were also reduced in parthenogenetic blastocysts compared to normal outgrowths. Genetic mapping studies showed that Mmp9 maps to the distal end of chromosome 2 near the proximal boundary of a region affected by genomic imprinting. Both parental alleles of Mmp9, however, are expressed in 11.5-day embryos derived from interspecific crosses of Mus musculus and Mus spretus. Thus, loss of MMP-9 activity in parthenogenetic blastocysts does not appear to be due to imprinting but, rather, due to a defect of trophoblast giant cell proliferation and differentiation.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|State||Published - Sep 22 1997|
- Parthenogenetic embryos
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Biology
- Cell Biology