The hypothalamic pituitary sex of the androgen insensitive, genetically male rat pseudohermaphrodite was studied by examining its vaginal cytology, response to ovarian transplants and urinary steroidal excretion patterns. More than half the pseudohermaphrodites studied were in constant vaginal estrus, while the remaining rats displayed either persistent diestrus or irregular cyclicity tending towards lengthened estrus. Following gonadectomy and ovarian transplantation, normal females displayed regular 4 day cycles while pseudohermaphrodites remained in constant vaginal estrus. In pseudohermaphrodites with ovarian transplants, only C19 steroids were detected in the urine while females excreted both C21 and C19 steroids. Indicative of the urinary findings, transplants in females had corpora lutea and maturing follicles while grafts from pseudohermaphrodites and males contained follicular cysts and luteinized theca. In addition, distribution and activity of histochemical 3β hydroxy Δ5 steroid oxidoreductase were similar in the grafts from pseudohermaphrodites and males, but unlike the females. Although previous reports have shown that much of the sex dependent differentiation of the genetic male rat pseudohermaphrodite is phenotypically female, these results suggest that the phenotype of the hypothalamic pituitary axis of this animal is, at least in certain respects male.
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