Marital status: A gender-independent risk factor for poorer survival after radical cystectomy

Jesse D. Sammon, Monica Morgan, Orchidee Djahangirian, Quoc Dien Trinh, Maxine Sun, Khurshid R. Ghani, Wooju Jeong, Jay Jhaveri, Michael Ehlert, Jan Schmitges, Marco Bianchi, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Paul Perrotte, Craig G. Rogers, James O. Peabody, Mani Menon, Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Study Type - Prognosis (cohort) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Married individuals have lower morbidity and mortality rates for all major causes of death. Cancer-specific survival is better in married patients with testis cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, as well as head and neck cancers. We have found the effect of marital status on outcomes after radical cystectomy to be variable, depending on gender and the outcome addressed. Being married is predictive of lower all-cause mortality for both men and women relative to their separated, divorced or widowed (SDW) or never-married counterparts. It is also predictive of lower bladder-cancer-specific mortality relative to SDW individuals. Marriage also exerts a protective effect on men regarding non-organ-confined disease, with those never having married having significantly higher rates. Objectives: To examine the effect of marital status (MS) on the rate of non-organ-confined disease (NOCD) at radical cystectomy (RC) To assess the effect of MS on the rate of bladder-cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) and all-cause mortality (ACM) after RC for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB). Materials and Methods: A total of 14 859 patients, who underwent RC for UCUB, were captured within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, between 1988 and 2006. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the rate of NOCD (T3-4/NI-3/M0) at RC and Cox regression analyses were used to assess BCSM and ACM. Analyses were stratified according to gender; covariates included socio-economic status, tumour stage, age, race, tumour grade and year of surgery. Results: Never-married males had a higher rate of NOCD at RC (odds ratio = 1.22, P= 0.004), an effect not found in never-married females. Separated, divorced or widowed (SDW) males (hazard ratio [HR]= 1.18, P= 0.005) and females (HR = 1.16, P= 0.002) had higher rates of BCSM than their married counterparts. SDW and never-married males had higher rates of ACM than their married counterparts (HR = 1.22, P < 0.001 and HR = 1.26, P < 0.001, respectively). SDW and never-married females also had higher rates of ACM than married females (HR = 1.24, P < 0.001 and HR = 1.22, P= 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: For both men and women, being SDW conveyed an increased risk of BCSM after RC. SDW and never marrying had a deleterious effect on ACM. Unfavourable stage at RC was also seen more commonly in never-married males.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1301-1309
Number of pages9
JournalBJU International
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 2012


  • bladder cancer
  • cystectomy
  • gender
  • marital status
  • survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Marital status: A gender-independent risk factor for poorer survival after radical cystectomy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this