Cholangiocarcinoma is a tumor that arises as a result of differentiation of the cholangio-cytes and can develop from anywhere in the biliary tree. Subtypes of cholangiocarcinoma are dif-ferentiated based on their location in the biliary tree. If diagnosed early these can be resected, but most cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma present late in the disease course where surgical resection is not an option. In these patients who are poor candidates for resection, a combination of chemotherapy, locoregional therapies like ablation, transarterial chemo and radioembolization, and in very advanced and metastatic disease, external radiation are the available options. These modal-ities can improve overall disease‐free and progression‐free survival chances. In this review, we will discuss the risk factors and clinical presentation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, diagnosis, available therapeutic options, and future directions for management options.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2368
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021


  • Brachytherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Intrahepatic
  • Proton beam therapy
  • Resection
  • Short‐beam external radiation
  • Transarterial chemoemboliza-tion (TACE), Yttrium‐90 (Y90), chemotherapy
  • Transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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