The complex relationship between diet and metabolism is an important contributor to cellular metabolism and health. Over the past few decades, a central role for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, including the response to food intake, maintaining homeostasis, and the pathogenesis of disease, has been shown. Herein, we first review our current understanding of the biochemical functions of mTOR and its response to fluctuations in hormone levels, like insulin. Second, we highlight the role of mTOR in lipogenesis, adipogenesis, β-oxidation of lipids, and ketosis of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Special attention is paid to recent advances in mTOR signaling in white versus brown adipose tissues. Finally, we review how mTOR regulates cardiovascular health and disease. Together, these insights define a clearer picture of the connection between mTOR signaling, metabolic health, and disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine