OBJECTIVE: To determine whether machine learning (ML) algorithms can improve the prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and functional outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: ML models and standard models (SMs) were trained to predict DCI and functional outcomes with data collected within 3 days of admission. Functional outcomes at discharge and at 3 months were quantified using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for neurologic disability (dichotomized as good [mRS ≤ 3] vs poor [mRS ≥ 4] outcomes). Concurrently, clinicians prospectively prognosticated 3-month outcomes of patients. The performance of ML, SMs, and clinicians were retrospectively compared. RESULTS: DCI status, discharge, and 3-month outcomes were available for 399, 393, and 240 participants, respectively. Prospective clinician (an attending, a fellow, and a nurse) prognostication of 3-month outcomes was available for 90 participants. ML models yielded predictions with the following area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) scores: 0.75 ± 0.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.84) for DCI, 0.85 ± 0.05 (95% CI 0.75-0.92) for discharge outcome, and 0.89 ± 0.03 (95% CI 0.81-0.94) for 3-month outcome. ML outperformed SMs, improving AUC by 0.20 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.4) for DCI, by 0.07 ± 0.03 (95% CI -0.0018 to 0.14) for discharge outcomes, and by 0.14 (95% CI 0.03-0.24) for 3-month outcomes and matched physician's performance in predicting 3-month outcomes. CONCLUSION: ML models significantly outperform SMs in predicting DCI and functional outcomes and has the potential to improve SAH management.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology